Only 34 refugees were resettled in ; this is two-thirds less than in and the lowest number on record. In , migrant employment rates declined in three out of five OECD countries, while migrant unemployment increased in three out of four countries. Gaps between foreign-born and native-born labour market indicators reached on average 2 percentage points for employment and more than 3 percentage points on unemployment.
The labour market outcomes of immigrants have, however, not changed significantly in countries that used large job retention schemes during the crisis or in those with significant return migration. Immigrants from Latin America and the Middle East have been more negatively affected than other groups. On average in the OECD, more than two-thirds of immigrants were employed and one in ten migrants was unemployed in In many countries, integration obligations were relaxed or deadlines extended.
The pandemic also fostered the use of digital tools for integration programmes, host-country language learning and outreach to migrant populations. Supports for vulnerable migrants were in place in most countries, with particular focus on encouraging migrants to access health care. In the context of the pandemic and other events in , many OECD countries and the European Union have implemented action plans to combat discrimination and its impact on those perceived to have a migrant background.
In the 25 OECD countries with available data, on average during the period, immigrants contributed more in taxes and contributions than governments spend on their social protection, health and education.
The contributions of immigrants generally fully cover their share of congestible public goods, and contribute to the financing of pure public goods, such as defence and public debt charges. The situation is not the same in all countries, but this is often due to differences in the ages of their migrant populations: older migrants do not contribute at the same level as the working-age migrants.
The economic consequences of the COVID pandemic calls for maintaining, if not increasing, investments in the labour market integration of recently arrived and settled migrants, as these programmes have a very high fiscal return. In all OECD countries, migrants are concentrated in certain areas, especially in the poorer neighbourhoods and the outskirts of large metropolitan cities. However, not all immigrant groups are concentrated to the same extent and this is shaped by both geography and historical settlement patterns.
The effects on integration are complex. On the one hand, arrival in high concentration areas is often associated with better initial employment prospects. Original Language. Reference Number. Date of upload. Cite this publication McAuliffe, M. Add to reading list. Also available in:. This new edition presents key data and information on migration as well as thematic chapters on highly topical migration issues, and is structured to focus on two key contributions for readers: Part I: key information on migration and migrants including migration-related statistics ; and Part II: balanced, evidence-based analysis of complex and emerging migration issues.
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The edition of International Migration Outlook analyses recent developments in migration movements and the labour market inclusion of. The edition of International Migration Outlook analyses recent developments in migration movements and the labour market inclusion of immigrants in OECD countries. It also monitors recent policy changes in migration governance and integration. The edition of International Migration Outlook analyses recent developments in migration movements and the labour market inclusion of immigrants in OECD.