Epidemic typhus is spread to people through contact with infected body lice. Though epidemic typhus was responsible for millions of deaths in previous centuries, it is now considered a rare disease. Occasionally, cases continue to occur, in areas where extreme overcrowding is common and body lice can travel from one person to another.
In the United States, rare cases of epidemic typhus, called sylvatic typhus, can occur. These cases occur when people are exposed to flying squirrels and their nests. Symptoms of epidemic typhus begin within 2 weeks after contact with infected body lice. Signs and symptoms may include:. Some people can remain infected, without symptoms, for years after they first get sick. Rarely, these individuals can have a relapse in disease, called Brill-Zinsser disease, months or years following their first illness.
The symptoms of Brill-Zinsser disease are similar to the original infection, but are usually milder than the initial illness. Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link. Typhus Fevers. Section Navigation. Archived from the original on 10 September New York. Archived from the original on 17 May Human Vaccines.
PMID Control of communicable diseases manual : an official report of the American Public Health Association. Emerging Infectious Diseases. PMC Journal of Clinical Microbiology. August Clinical Infectious Diseases. July September CBS Los Angeles. Rats, Lice and History. Bantam Classic. Natural Resources Journal. The State of the Prisons.
Howard's observations are from to Copied from State v. Valentine May Wn. Joseph M. Annual Review of Microbiology. McCord Museum. Archived from the original on 8 April Retrieved 22 January Retrieved Section of Epidemiology and State Medicine. History of Vaccines. Future Microbiology. Medical History. International Health Organisations and Movements, — Cambridge University Press , p. Vaccines: A Biography.
Springer , p. University of Toronto Press , p. Volume 1. Government Printing Office. Archived PDF from the original on 4 March Retrieved 19 May NBC Southern California. Retrieved 9 February City Hall, overrun with rats, might remove all carpets amid typhus fears". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 12 February Los Angeles Magazine. Retrieved 5 March Classification D. Proteobacteria -associated Gram-negative bacterial infections. Rickettsia typhi Murine typhus Rickettsia prowazekii Epidemic typhus , Brill—Zinsser disease , Flying squirrel typhus.
Rickettsia rickettsii Rocky Mountain spotted fever Rickettsia conorii Boutonneuse fever Rickettsia japonica Japanese spotted fever Rickettsia sibirica North Asian tick typhus Rickettsia australis Queensland tick typhus Rickettsia honei Flinders Island spotted fever Rickettsia africae African tick bite fever Rickettsia parkeri American tick bite fever Rickettsia aeschlimannii Rickettsia aeschlimannii infection.
Rickettsia akari Rickettsialpox Orientia tsutsugamushi Scrub typhus. Rickettsia felis Flea-borne spotted fever. Ehrlichiosis : Anaplasma phagocytophilum Human granulocytic anaplasmosis , Anaplasmosis Ehrlichia chaffeensis Human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis Ehrlichia ewingii Ehrlichiosis ewingii infection. Brucella abortus Brucellosis. Salmonella enterica Typhoid fever , Paratyphoid fever , Salmonellosis.
Pasteurellosis Actinobacillus Actinobacillosis. Francisella tularensis Tularemia. Vibrio cholerae Cholera Vibrio vulnificus Vibrio parahaemolyticus Vibrio alginolyticus Plesiomonas shigelloides. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pseudomonas infection Moraxella catarrhalis Acinetobacter baumannii. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Categories : Typhus Rickettsioses. Hidden categories: Webarchive template wayback links Webarchive template webcite links CS1: Julian—Gregorian uncertainty Articles with short description Short description matches Wikidata Use British English from November Short description is different from Wikidata All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from November Articles with unsourced statements from December Articles with unsourced statements from February All articles with vague or ambiguous time Vague or ambiguous time from September Articles with GND identifiers Articles with J9U identifiers Articles with LCCN identifiers Wikipedia infectious disease articles ready to translate Wikipedia medicine articles ready to translate.
Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version. Wikimedia Commons. Infectious disease. Fever, headache, rash . Bacterial infection spread by parasites . Doxycycline . Rare . Rickettsia prowazekii. When the term "typhus" is used without clarification, this is usually the condition described. Historical references to "typhus" are now generally considered to be this condition.
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Typhus exanthematicus, or epidemic typhus. Epidemic typhus, also known as louse-borne typhus, is a form of typhus so named because the disease often causes epidemics following wars and natural disasters where civil life is disrupted. Typhus, also known as typhus fever, is a group of infectious diseases that include epidemic typhus, scrub typhus, and murine typhus.